The German government has branded as "unacceptable" a protest against coronavirus measures in Berlin this weekend.
Thousands of people took part in the "day of freedom" protest, with demonstrators saying that wearing face coverings violated their rights and freedoms.
Ulrike Demmer, Chancellor Angela Merkel’s spokeswoman, said demonstrators who did not wear face coverings or keep to social distancing guidelines “exploited their right to demonstrate”.
The BBC's Damien McGuinness said some participants were from the far right and some were conspiracy theorists who do not believe Covid-19 exists, but others were ordinary people who simply object to the government's approach to the pandemic.
Police broke up the protest, saying organisers had not respected coronavirus hygiene regulations.
Some 45 officers were injured.
Police made 133 arrests, according to AFP news agency.
Health Minister Jens Spahn said: “Yes, demonstrations should also be possible in times of coronavirus, but not like this.
“Distance, hygiene rules and masks serve to protect us all, so we treat each other with respect.