Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field of study that combines computer science and robust datasets to enable problem-solving. AI describes the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual characteristic of humans such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from experience.
The idea of AI originated in the 1950s. The period of the late 1940s saw the development of the digital computer. This development underpinned the idea of AI. By the 1950s, a generation of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers emerged with the concept of AI. Notable amongst them was Alan Turing, a young British polymath who explored the mathematical possibility of artificial intelligence.
Turing suggested that humans use available information as well as a reason to solve problems and make decisions. In his 1950 paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Turing provided a logical framework in which he discussed how to build intelligent machines and how to test their intelligence.
Most AI applications in the early days were time-consuming to extract and codify human knowledge. However, the introduction of sub-fields of machine learning and deep learning have substantially facilitated the processes, as well as improved the quality of artificial intelligence. The disciplines of machine learning and deep learning are comprised of AI algorithms that typically make predictions or classifications based on input data.
Categories of Artificial intelligence: Weak and Strong
Weak AI, also called Narrow AI or Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) embodies a system designed to perform specific tasks. Weak AI drives most of the AI that is experienced in everyday life. Though described as weak or narrow, this type of AI enables some powerful applications, such as Apple's Siri and Amazon's Alexa.
On the other hand, strong AI encompasses Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI). Strong AI is a theoretical form of AI where a machine is required to perform tasks considered to be human-like. Strong AI is designed with the ability to solve problems, learn, and plan for the future. While strong AI is still entirely theoretical with no practical examples in use today, researchers are exploring its development. In the meantime, these kinds of systems can be found in applications like self-driving cars or hospital operating rooms.
Significance of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence plays a vital role in everyday life. Today, AI with varying levels of sophistication is used widely across a range of applications.
AI recommendation algorithms can be used to suggest what people might like next or even make product recommendations. Computer search engines and chatbots that appear on websites or in the form of speech recognition systems (e.g. Alexa or Siri) are powered by artificial intelligence.
In the area of health, AI is used to assist in diagnostics. It helps to identify small anomalies in scans and can better triangulate diagnoses from a patient's symptoms and vitals. AI is also used to classify patients, track medical records, and deal with health insurance claims among others.
AI is used to make predictions in terms of weather and financial forecasting, reorganize production processes, and cut down on various forms of redundant cognitive labour such as tax accounting or editing.
As an emerging technology Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly gaining attention in the digital age. The innovation’s relevance is being understood in everyday life and its market missions are being realised.
Information from www.britannica.com/technology/artificial-intelligence, www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-artificial-intelligence, https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/history-artificial-intelligence/ was used in this story.