The Illegal Migration Bill has passed through Parliament ending a long stand-off between MPs and Lords.
The bill is part of the government's plan to tackle small boat crossings after record numbers arrived in the UK this way in 2022.
Under the Illegal Migration Bill, published in March 2023:
Under a new agreement with France, the UK will pay £500m over three years to fund more patrol officers and a new detention centre.
The government also said its returns agreement with Albania had reduced small boat arrivals from the country.
Pressure from peers in the House of Lords led to changes being made to the bill, known as "amendments".
But most of these amendments - such as the requirement to safeguard UK-based victims of modern slavery - were defeated in the final stage of the bill's passage.
After the bill passed, shadow home secretary Yvette Cooper said the new legislation "fails to tackle the criminal smuggler gangs, and makes it easier for traffickers".
She added that the lack of returns agreements with other countries "will just increase the asylum backlog with even more people in costly hotels".
The Home Office insists there are a number of "safe and legal" routes to the UK.
However, some are restricted to people from specific countries such as Afghanistan and Ukraine, while other routes only accept limited numbers. Figures shown are for the year to March 2023:
In April 2023, Immigration Minister Robert Jenrick was asked in Parliament which safe and legal routes were available to a young person wanting to flee the conflict in Sudan.
He said, "the best advice would be for individuals to present to the UNHCR [UN Refugee Agency]. We already operate safe and legal routes with them."
Critics of the government's asylum proposals, such as the Refugee Council, say they risk breaking international law.
The main principle of the 1951 Refugee Convention states that refugees should not be returned to countries where they faced threats to life or freedom.
The government insists its plan to send migrants to Rwanda for their asylum cases to be heard complies with international law.
But the Court of Appeal ruled in June 2023 that sending asylum seekers to Rwanda was unlawful and risks breaching Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights.
The government is taking the case to the Supreme Court.
The first of several hundred migrants have already arrived at the Essex site.
In April 2023, the government announced that a barge called the Bibby Stockholm based in Dorset would host up to 500 adult male asylum seekers. The barge arrived in Portland on 18 July.
Another accommodation site called Catterick Garrison in Yorkshire is also due to open soon.
Local councils in Lincolnshire and Essex both initially lost legal challenges to prevent bases being used to house asylum seekers, but the High Court ruled that some of the points made by Braintree and West Lindsey District Councils needed a fresh hearing.
The government hopes the new measures will reduce the amount of money it spends on accommodation. There are more than 51,000 asylum seekers currently living in hotels across the UK.
A Home Office official told a committee of MPs that the department was paying to keep nearly 5,000 hotel beds empty to prevent overcrowding at detention centres.